مروری بر برداشت میکروجلبک‌ها از محیط‌های آبی با استفاده از روش‌های زیستی

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری محیط زیست، شرکت آب و فاضلاب استان قم، قم، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد، زیست‌شناسی گیاهی، شرکت آب و فاضلاب استان قم، قم، ایران.

3 دکتری، دانشکده محیط زیست، پردیس دانشکده‌های فنی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف:زیستگاه اصلی میکروجلبک‌ها محیط‌های آبی طبیعی یا انسان ساخت می‌باشد. میکروجلبک‌ها در فرایند تصفیه آب و فاضلاب و یا تولید توده زیستی قابل استفاده در تولید بیودیزل، تولید کود بیولوژیک، مکمّل‌ها و خوراک دام و طیور و آبزیان استفاده می‌شوند. روش‌های برداشت میکروجلبک‌ها از محیط آبی نظیر رسوب گرانشی، سانتریفیوژ کردن، فیلتراسیون و غربال‌گری، شناورسازی، جداسازی الکترولیتی و فلوکولاسیون مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است.
روش‌شناسی: در روش فلوکولاسیون که فلوکولانت‌های مختلف جهت ته‌نشین‌سازی میکروجلبک‌ها پیشنهاد شده است (ترکیبات سولفات و کلرید فلزاتی چون آهن، آلومینیوم و روی، ترکیبات کاتیونی مانند نشاسته کاتیونی و پلیمرهای زیستی نظیر کیتوزان و ...) معایبی همچون مقدار بالای فلوکولانت مورد نیاز، تولید پسماندهایی که نیاز به جداسازی مجدد دارند را نشان می‌دهد.
یافته‌ها:پایین بودن بازده ته‌نشین‌سازی و قیمت بالای فلوکولانت موجب شده، جستجو برای یافتن فلوکولانت‌های ارزان، کم مصرف و بی‌نیاز به جداسازی مجدد، به طور جدی مورد توجه محققان قرار گیرد. عواملی نظیر مقدار و نوع بیوفلوکولانت و عوامل محیطی نظیر دما،pH ، در سرعت اختلاط در راندمان بیوفلوکولاسیون نقش دارد. در این تحقیق روشی ارزان و پربازده بیوفولوکولاسیون بررسی و شرایط بهینه ارائه گردید. مطالعات نشان می‌دهد که جداسازی میکروجلبک‌ها در روش بیوفلوکولاسیون در برخی موارد تا 99% افزایش می‌یابد.
نتیجه‌گیری: تحقیق مروری حاضر گویای آن است که می توان از میکروارگانیسم‌های ته‌نشین‌شونده نظیر باکتری‌ها، دیاتوم‌ها و میکروجلبک‌های خاص به عنوان بیوفلوکولانت استفاده نمود و با روشی دوست‌دار محیط زیست، میکروجلبک‌ها را برای مقاصد مختلف برداشت و جداسازی کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An overview of microalgae harvest from aquatic environments using biological methods

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hasan Bakhtiari 1
  • Reza Ansari Tadi 2
  • Abo Ali Golzari 3
1 PhD. Student, Environmental, Qom province Water and Wastewater Company, Qom, Iran.
2 Masters, Herbal Biology, Qom province Water and Wastewater Company, Qom, Iran.
3 PhD.School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background:The main habitat of microalgae is natural or man-made aquatic environments. Microalgae are used in the process of water and wastewater treatment or biomass production that can be used in the production of biodiesel, biofertilizers, supplements and feed for poultry and aquatic animals. Microalgae extraction methods from aqueous medium such as gravitational deposition, centrifugation, filtration and screening, flotation, electrolyte separation and flocculation have been used.
Methods: In the flocculation method, different flocculants have been proposed for the deposition of microalgae (sulfate and chloride compounds of metals such as iron, aluminum and zinc, cationic compounds such as cationic starch and biopolymers such as chitosan, etc.). Disadvantages such as the high amount of flocculants required, the production of wastes that need to be re-separated, the low sedimentation efficiency and the high price of flocculants have made the search for cheap.
Results:Low-consumption flocculants without the need for re-separation seriously considered by researchers. Factors such as quantity and type Biofluccolants and environmental factors such as temperature, pH, mixing rate play a role in biofluctuation efficiency. Studies show that the isolation of microalgae in the bioflucculation method in some cases increases up to 99%.
Conclusion: The present review shows that sedimentary microorganisms such as bacteria, diatoms and specific microalgae can be used as bioflucculants and microalgae can be harvested and isolated for various purposes in an environmentally friendly manner.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofluolants
  • Microalgae
  • harvesting
  • Biological methods
  • biorefineries
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دوره 11، شماره 41
فروردین 1400
صفحه 85-106
  • تاریخ دریافت: 19 مرداد 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 11 شهریور 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 16 مهر 1399
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 فروردین 1400